Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

Anything around us and in the entire universe can be classified as either matter on energy.


"Physical Properties" refer to information about a substance that describe it and that helps us identify it.
"Characteristic Physical Properties" are physical properties that can be used to identify a substance because they never change. 

Example: The density of water is always 1.00 g/mL at room temperature.
This is a Characteristic Physical Property of water because we can use this data to distinguish water from other liquids that ay look like it.

 States of Matter


Solid State
 rubber, iron, ice, chalk

Particles of solids are held in place by strong electrostatic forces and are densely packed together. Particles of solids vibrate constantly due to their internal energy but they cannot move from one place to another.  Particles of solids possess only vibrational energy.




Liquid State:
alcohol, gasoline, oil, water

Particles of liquids are kept together by forces of attraction that are weaker than those of solid particles.  Within the walls of the  container they can move from place to place bumping into the sides of the container and into other particles.  This type of energy is called translational    energy.  This energy gives a liquid  the ability to flow and be poured and to spread when a liquid is spilled.  Liquid particles also have vibrational energy.




Gaseous State:
Examples: air, natural gas, carbon dioxide, steam

Vapour State is the gas state of a substance normally a liquid or solid at room temperature.


Particles of gases are "more rarefied" than either liquids or solids.  This means that the forces of attraction that hold them together are very weak and that the spaces between them are much larger than the spaces between solid and liquid particles. Particles of gases can move  from  place to place within a container bumping against the walls of  the container and against other particles. They rotate and vibrate at the same time.  Particles of gases have rotational, translational and vibrational energy.  This explains why they can escape from a container very easily and they can put pressure on the side of the container (example a balloon or a tire).